I am not going to directly quote any particular program, nor am I going to endorse a program, I have nothing to back me up. But I can tell you what I have picked up on in my readings.
Some of the charities will accept your donation for the purpose of providing a family with a goat. The program teaches the family, and especially the goat care giver (normally the mother of the family), how to care for a goat.
The dairy goat is milked, providing milk for the family, and excess milk generally is sold by the family, which is extra income. I drink goat milk myself. I stand behind the great wealth of its health benefits!
Goats are proliferous breeders, so one healthy goat can lead to 3 or 4, and more in a couple of years span, which also helps the families income. Buying that first goat is what they need help with, and the education of how to care for the goat.
In my own opinion, this is a wonderful way to help others, with a twist to it!
To keep myself out of hot water, the photo belongs to one particular charity, http://www.worldvision.org/ .